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11 August 2012

AIR BRUSHING: Blowing color on a fabric or paper with a mechanized pneumatic brush.

ACETIC ACID: An organic acid (CH3COOH) widely used in textile applications. It is used in
textile wet processing, dyeing and printing, and in the manufacture of cellulose acetate and
cellulose triacetate.

AIR JET SPINNING: A spinning system in which yarn is
made by wrapping fibers around a core stream of fibers with
compressed air. In this process, the fibers are drafted to
appropriate sliver size, then fed to the air jet chambers
where they are twisted, first in one direction, then in the
reverse direction in a second chamber. They are stabilized
after each twisting operation.

ALPHA CELLULOSE: One of three forms of cellulose. Alpha cellulose
has the highest degree of polymerization and is the chief constituent of
paper pulp and chemical dissolving-grade pulp. (Also see BETA

BACKCOATING: The application of latex or adhesive to the back of a carpet to anchor the
tufts, usually followed immediately by addition of a secondary backing material such as woven
jute or nonwoven polypropylene.

BACKING: 1. A general term for any system of yarn which interlaces on the back of a textile
material. 2. A knit or woven fabric or plastic foam bonded to a face fabric. 3. A knot or woven
fabric bonded to a vinyl or other plastic sheet material.

BACTERICIDAL FIBER: Fiber used for medical applications, socks, shoe liners, etc., in which
bactericides are introduced directly into the fiber matrix as opposed to fiber simply having a
bactericidal finish applied.

BLEACHING: Any of several processes to remove the natural and artificial impurities in fabrics
to obtain clear whites for finished fabric or in preparation for dyeing and finishing.

BLEEDING: Loss of color by a fabric or yarn when immersed in water, a solvent, or a similar
liquid medium, as a result of improper dyeing or the use of dyes of poor quality. Fabrics that
bleed can cause staining of white or light shade fabrics in contact with them while wet.

BRUSHING: A finishing process in which rotating brushes raise a nap on knit or woven fabrics.
Brushing is used on sweaters, scarves, knit underwear, wool broadcloths, etc.

CALENDER: A machine used in finishing to impart a variety of surface
effects to fabrics. A calender essentially consists of two or more heavy
rollers, sometimes heated, through which the fabric passes under heavy

CAP SPINNING: A system of spinning employing a stationary,
highly polished metal cap just large enough to fit over the take-up
bobbin, which revolves at a high rate of speed. The cap controls the
build and imparts sufficient tension to the yarn for winding. The yarn
is twisted and wound onto packages simultaneously.

CARBON FIBER: A high-tensile fiber or whisker made by heating
rayon or polyacrylonitrile fibers or petroleum residues to appropriate
temperatures. Fibers may be 7 to 8 microns in diameter and are more
that 90% carbonized.

CARBONIZING: A chemical process for eliminating cellulosic material from wool or other
animal fibers. The material is reacted with sulfuric acid or hydrogen chloride gas followed by
heating. When the material is dry, the carbonized cellulose material is dust-like and can be

CELLULOSIC FIBER: A fiber composed of, or derived from, cellulose. Examples are cotton
(cellulose), rayon (regenerated cellulose), acetate (cellulose acetate), and triacetate (cellulose

DENIM: A firm 2 x 1 or 3 x 1 twill-weave fabric, often having a whitish tinge, obtained by using
white filling yarns with colored warp yarns. Heavier weight denims, usually blue or brown, are
used for dungarees, work clothes, and men’s and women’s sportswear. Lighter weight denims
with softer finish are made in a variety of colors and patterns and are used for sportswear and

DOBBY: 1. A mechanical attachment on a loom. A dobby controls the harnesses to permit the
weaving of geometric figures. 2. A loom equipped with a dobby. 3. A fabric woven on a dobby

DOFFER LOADING: Fibers imbedded so deeply into the doffer wire clothing that the doffer
comb cannot dislodge them to form a traveling web.

DOUBLE-CLOTH CONSTRUCTION: Two fabrics are woven in the loom at the same time,
one fabric on top of the other, with binder threads holding the two fabrics together. The weave on
the two fabrics can be different.

DOWNTWISTING: A process for inserting twist into yarn in which the yarn passes downward
from the supply package (a bobbin, cheese, or cone) to the revolving spindle. The package or
packages of yarn to be twisted are positioned on the creel, and the ends of yarn are led downward
through individual guides and stop motions to the positively driven feed roll and from there to the
revolving take-up package or bobbin, which inserts twist.

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